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Cell Lines Stimulated by PEMF

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2023, VOL. 22, NO. 11, 1319–1342
A mechanistically approached review upon assorted cell lines stimulated by athermal electromagnetic irradiation
Khadijeh Askaripour and Arkadiusz Żak
Department of Biomechatronics, Gdansk University of Technology, Gdansk, Poland
The probable influence of electromagnetic irradiation on cancer treatment has been deduced from the interaction of artificial electromagnetic emissions with biological organisms. Nonetheless, the suspected health effects induced by electromagnetic-based technology imply that such a treatment may contam- inate the adjacent healthy cells. Thus, gaining mechanistic insights into the problem is required to avoid athermal health hazards. To tackle that, the current review, based upon in vitro studies into assorted cell lines, depicts the alterations in physiological processes triggered by electromagnetic irradiation via addressing gene regulatory cascades. Furthermore, decisive factors in the hypothesized cause-effect linkage in terms of the cell line-associated, exposure-associated, or endpoint-associated parameters are highlighted. As a result, subcellular structures such as aberrant Ca2+ channels, rich glycocalyx charge, or high water content in cancerous cells, which have attracted a great deal of attention, can explain their higher susceptibility compared with healthy cells under irradiation. Affected by cell components or geometry, the cellular biological window correlates with the metabolic or cell cycle status and deter- mines the irradiation that causes the maximum influence. For instance, correlations between the frequency (or intensity) of irradiation and cell excitability or between the duration of irradiation and cell doubling time are observed. There are unspecified signaling pathways such as the pathway of PPAR- γ or MAPKs, and also proteins devoid of any investigation such as p14, or S phase-related and G2 phase- related proteins. Other chains, such as the cAMP connection with mitochondrial ATP or ERK signaling, the association of Hsps releases with signaling pathways of MAPKs, or the role of different ion channels in regulating various cell processes, require further investigation.
1 Introduction
Evaluation of the interaction of artificial electromag- netic fields (EMFs) with organisms has led research- ers to its potential capability to treat cancerous cells of various tissue types. Therefore, the EMF is ren- dered as a double-edged sword that functions based on the association between irradiation characteristics and tissue structure. Being a ubiquitous environmen- tal stressing factor, the EMF emitted from many technology-based sources, such as high-voltage transmission lines, induction hobs, or mobile tele- phony, has reportedly caused functioning disruption in various organisms [1]. Due to its non-ionizing nature and possible athermal health effects, electro- magnetic fields without or with co-exposure to che- micals have been investigated for the treatment of cell carcinoma [2,3]. A critical consequence of such deliberate irradiation may be the contamination of healthy cells. Provided that the probable adverse
health effects of the electromagnetic field are prop- erly taken into consideration, its numerous technol- ogy-based applications will be counted as significant.
The mechanistic elucidation of the EMF coupling into organic tissues is necessary to unravel biological endpoints following the environmental exposure and thus to provide a proper estimation of health effects. Hence, the study question is not as to whether EMF- related biological effects occur or not, but rather as to the natural processes through which such effects are brought about, and the parameters associated with the cell line, EMF exposure, or biological endpoint parti- cipating in these effects. The fundamental purpose of studying cells in vitro is to break down an organism into more controllable systems to address mechanistic questions. By contrast, epidemiological studies are devoid of the capability to explain mechanisms under- lying alterations in physiological processes due to poor control over influential parameters, difficulty in
Received 9 August 2022 Revised 21 November 2022 Accepted
21 November 2022
Carcinoma treatment; cell cycle; effect mechanism; electromagnetic field; health effect; non-thermal EMF
CONTACT Khadijeh Askaripour Department of Biomechatronics, Gdansk University of Technology, ul. Narutowicza 11/12, Gdansk, Pomorskie 80-234, Poland
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