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Effect of PEMF and Plantar Flexion Resistance on Wound Healing


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Publication Title | Effect of PEMF and Plantar Flexion Resistance on Wound Healing

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medicina
Article
Effect of Combined Electromagnetic Field and Plantar Flexion Resistance Exercise on Wound Healing in Patients with Venous Leg Ulcers: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Heba Mohamed Mohamady 1, Mona Mohamed Taha 2,* , Yasser M. Aneis 3,4, Monira I. Aldhahi 2 and Asmaa Fawzy Attalla 1
1 2
3
Abstract: Background and Objectives: Venous ulcers are recognized to be more painful and resistant to therapy than ulcers of other etiologies. Various methods have been used for the conservative treatment of venous ulcers, such as pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) and plantar exercise, which promote wound healing due to a range of physiological effects. The study aimed to examine the effect of combined pulsed electromagnetic field therapy and plantar flexion resistance exercise (PRE) on patients with venous leg ulcers (VLUs). Materials and Methods: The study was a prospective, randomized controlled trial. A total of 60 patients between the ages of 40 and 55 with venous ulcers were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups. For up to 12 weeks, the first group received PEMF therapy and plantar flexion resistance exercise (PRE) therapy in addition to conservative ulcer treatment for up to 12 weeks. The second group received only PEMF therapy in addition to conservative ulcer treatment, while the third group served as the control and received only conservative ulcer treatment. Results: At the four-week follow-up, the two experimental groups revealed a considerable variation in ulcer surface area (USA) and ulcer volume (UV), with no significant change in the control group. At the 12-week follow-up, there were significant differences between the three groups, while group A underwent the most significant changes, with mean differences at [95% confidence interval] of (−4.75, −3.82, −0.98) for USA and (−12.63, −9.55, −2.45) for UV, respectively. Conclusions: On a short-term basis, adding a plantar resistance exercise to the PEMF had no appreciable short-term effects on ulcer healing; however, their combination had more pronounced medium-term effects.
Keywords: electromagnetic fields; resistance training; venous ulcer; wound healing
1. Introduction
Venous or stasis ulcers account for 80% of leg ulcers [1]. They affect 1% of the popu- lation and contribute significantly to chronic wounds. Venous ulcers can be painful and have an impact on quality of life. They mostly develop along the medial distal part of the leg [2], and can remain open for weeks or years, while are frequently recurrent. Women and older people tend to develop venous ulcers more frequently [3]. Despite the low overall incidence, the refractory nature of those ulcers raises the risk of morbidity and mortality and has a significant negative impact on the quality of life of the patient [4].
Venous leg ulcers (VLUs) are caused by chronic venous insufficiency (CVI), or venous disease of the leg. CVI is a venous system malfunction caused by the failure of the calf muscle pump [5]. The calf muscle pump is composed of the calf muscle, superficial and
Department of Physical Therapy for Surgery, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University, Giza 11432, Egypt Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, College of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University, P.O. Box 84428, Riyadh 11671, Saudi Arabia; mialdhahi@pnu.edu.sa
Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University, Giza 11432, Egypt; dryassercom@cu.edu.eg
4
Gamasa City 11152, Egypt
Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Delta University for Science and Technology, * Correspondence: momtaha@pnu.edu.sa; Tel.: +966-(11)-8240811
Citation: Mohamady, H.M.; Taha, M.M.; Aneis, Y.M.; Aldhahi, M.I.; Attalla, A.F. Effect of Combined Electromagnetic Field and Plantar Flexion Resistance Exercise on Wound Healing in Patients with Venous Leg Ulcers: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Medicina 2023, 59, 1157. https://doi.org/10.3390/ medicina59061157
Academic Editor: Rytis Rimdeika
Received: 1 April 2023 Revised: 16 May 2023 Accepted: 12 June 2023 Published: 15 June 2023
Copyright: © 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/ 4.0/).
Medicina 2023, 59, 1157. https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59061157 https://www.mdpi.com/journal/medicina

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