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Effects of Administering a Magnetic Field to Rheumatoid Arthritis


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Publication Title | Effects of Administering a Magnetic Field to Rheumatoid Arthritis

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Journal of
Clinical Medicine
Article
Positive and Negative Effects of Administering a Magnetic Field to Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)
Jolanta Zwolin ́ska 1,*, Marta Kasprzak 2, Aleksandra Kielar 2 and Michał Prokop 2
1 2
* Correspondence: jzwolinska@ur.edu.pl
Abstract: Background: Magnetotherapy applied to patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) produces anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antioedema effects. Observations suggest that the beneficial and adverse effects of magnetotherapy are related to the parameters of the magnetic field applied. This study aimed to assess the positive and negative effects of magnetotherapy, taking into account the type of the field. Methods: This study involved 39 patients with RA, who were randomly assigned to two groups: SMF—static magnetic field (n = 18) and PEMF—low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic field (n = 21). The examinations carried out before and after the therapy included a general assessment of the functional status, assessment of pain severity, measurement of the duration and severity of morning stiffness, computer-aided measurement of the range of motion of the hand joints and measurement of the hand volume using water displacement method. The patients received kinesiotherapy and magnetotherapy, as determined by the randomisation. Results: The findings show improved functional status by 0.26 points on average (p = 0.0166) measured with the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ-20), reduced pain by 2.2 points on average (p = 0.0000) on the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), decreased duration of morning stiffness by 23.2 min on average (p = 0.0010) and reduced severity of morning stiffness by 15.2 points on average (p = 0.0010). The assessment of the dominant hand showed improved range of motion by 1.9 mm on average (p = 0.0036) and reduced volume by 0.9 mm3 on average (p = 0.0230). A significantly reduced duration and severity of morning stiffness was observed in the SMF group. Statistically significant changes in the HAQ-20 scores,rangeofmotionandthevolumeofthedominanthandwereidentifiedinthePEMFgroup. Conclusions: Magnetic fields improved the functional status and reduced pain, morning stiffness and swelling in the hand. A static magnetic field may be more effective in reducing morning stiffness, whereas a pulsed magnetic field may, to a greater extent, improve function and reduce swelling in the rheumatoid hand. The effects of magnetotherapy reported so far require further observation.
Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis; rheumatoid hand; magnetotherapy; static electromagnetic fields; pulsed electromagnetic fields
1. Introduction
The mechanism underlying the action of magnetic fields (MFs) on living organisms is extremely complex and, despite the continued scientific research related to this, the phenomenon still has not been fully explained [1–3]. MFs may be classified as static magnetic fields (SMFs) and those changing in time, i.e., dynamic magnetic fields [4]. Various categories of dynamic magnetic fields are distinguished depending on parameters such as the intensity, frequency and practical use [5–7]. Magnetotherapy applies magnetic fields with flux densities between0.1mT and 30 mT. The magnetic field pulses can be rectangular, triangular, trapezoidal, sinusoidal and sawtoothed. The frequency of these pulses is below 100 Hz, usually in the range of 5 to 50 Hz [7,8]. Significantly higher magnetic field induction values are used for transcranial stimulation in patients with depression [9].
Citation:Zwolin ́ska,J.;Kasprzak,M.; Kielar, A.; Prokop, M. Positive and Negative Effects of Administering a Magnetic Field to Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). J. Clin. Med.2024,13,1619. https:// doi.org/10.3390/jcm13061619
Academic Editor: Sadiq Umar
Received: 26 January 2024 Revised: 29 February 2024 Accepted: 6 March 2024 Published: 12 March 2024
Copyright: © 2024 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/ 4.0/).
Institute of Health Sciences, Medical College, University of Rzeszów, 35-959 Rzeszów, Poland
Student Science Club for Investigation of Physical Energy Used in Physiotherapy, Institute of Health Sciences, College of Medical Sciences, University of Rzeszów, 35-959 Rzeszów, Poland
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13, 1619. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13061619 https://www.mdpi.com/journal/jcm

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