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Muscle Targeted Magnetic Mitohormesis


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bioengineering
Review
The Developmental Implications of Muscle-Targeted Magnetic Mitohormesis: A Human Health and Longevity Perspective
Alfredo Franco-Obregón 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,* , Yee Kit Tai 1,2,3,4,* , Kwan Yu Wu 1,2,3,8, Jan Nikolas Iversen 1,2,3 and Craig Jun Kit Wong 1,2,3
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Department of Surgery, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119228, Singapore; lesleywu77@live.nl (K.Y.W.); nikolas.iversen@u.nus.edu (J.N.I.); surwjkc@nus.edu.sg (C.J.K.W.)
Institute of Health Technology and Innovation (iHealthtech), National University of Singapore, Singapore 117599, Singapore
Biolonic Currents Electromagnetic Pulsing Systems Laboratory (BICEPS), National University of Singapore, Singapore 117599, Singapore
NUS Centre for Cancer Research, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117599, Singapore
Department of Physiology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117593, Singapore
Healthy Longevity Translational Research Programme, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119228, Singapore
Nanomedicine Translational Research Programme, Centre for NanoMedicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117544, Singapore
Faculty of Medicine, Utrecht University, 3584 CS Utrecht, The Netherlands
Citation: Franco-Obregón, A.; Tai, Y.K.; Wu, K.Y.; Iversen, J.N.; Wong, C.J.K. The Developmental Implications of Muscle-Targeted Magnetic Mitohormesis: A Human Health and Longevity Perspective. Bioengineering 2023, 10, 956. https://doi.org/10.3390/ bioengineering10080956
Academic Editors: Zhong Li and Wanting Niu
Received: 14 July 2023 Revised: 7 August 2023 Accepted: 10 August 2023 Published: 12 August 2023
Abstract: Muscle function reflects muscular mitochondrial status, which, in turn, is an adaptive re- sponse to physical activity, representing improvements in energy production for de novo biosynthesis or metabolic efficiency. Differences in muscle performance are manifestations of the expression of distinct contractile-protein isoforms and of mitochondrial-energy substrate utilization. Powerful contractures require immediate energy production from carbohydrates outside the mitochondria that exhaust rapidly. Sustained muscle contractions require aerobic energy production from fatty acids by the mitochondria that is slower and produces less force. These two patterns of muscle force generation are broadly classified as glycolytic or oxidative, respectively, and require disparate levels of increased contractile or mitochondrial protein production, respectively, to be effectively executed. Glycolytic muscle, hence, tends towards fibre hypertrophy, whereas oxidative fibres are more disposed towards increased mitochondrial content and efficiency, rather than hypertrophy. Although developmen- tally predetermined muscle classes exist, a degree of functional plasticity persists across all muscles post-birth that can be modulated by exercise and generally results in an increase in the oxidative character of muscle. Oxidative muscle is most strongly correlated with organismal metabolic balance and longevity because of the propensity of oxidative muscle for fatty-acid oxidation and associated anti-inflammatory ramifications which occur at the expense of glycolytic-muscle development and hypertrophy. This muscle-class size disparity is often at odds with common expectations that muscle mass should scale positively with improved health and longevity. Brief magnetic-field activation of the muscle mitochondrial pool has been shown to recapitulate key aspects of the oxidative-muscle phenotype with similar metabolic hallmarks. This review discusses the common genetic cascades invoked by endurance exercise and magnetic-field therapy and the potential physiological differences with regards to human health and longevity. Future human studies examining the physiological consequences of magnetic-field therapy are warranted.
Keywords: healthspan; PEMF; magnetic fields; muscle secretome; exercise
Copyright: © 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/ 4.0/).
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* Correspondence: afo@nus.edu.sg (A.F.-O.); surtaiyk@nus.edu.sg (Y.K.T.)
Bioengineering 2023, 10, 956. https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering10080956 https://www.mdpi.com/journal/bioengineering

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