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PEMF Regulate Calcium Mediated Cell Fate Stem Cells


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Ma et al. Stem Cell Research & Therapy (2023) 14:133 https://doi.org/10.1186/s13287-023-03303-w
REVIEW
Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Open Access
Electromagnetic fields regulate calcium-mediated cell fate of stem cells: osteogenesis, chondrogenesis and apoptosis Tian Ma1, Qing Ding1, Chaoxu Liu1* and Hua Wu1*
Abstract
Electromagnetic fields (EMF) are increasing in popularity as a safe and non-invasive therapy. On the one hand, it is widely acknowledged that EMF can regulate the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells, promoting the undif- ferentiated cells capable of osteogenesis, angiogenesis, and chondroblast differentiation to achieve bone repair purpose. On the other hand, EMF can inhibit tumor stem cells proliferation and promote apoptosis to suppress tumor growth. As an essential second messenger, intracellular calcium plays a role in regulating cell cycle, such as prolifera- tion, differentiation and apoptosis. There is increasing evidence that the modulation of intracellular calcium ion by EMF leads to differential outcomes in different stem cells. This review summarizes the regulation of channels, trans- porters, and ion pumps by EMF-induced calcium oscillations. It furtherly discusses the role of molecules and pathways activated by EMF-dependent calcium oscillations in promoting bone and cartilage repair and inhibiting tumor stem cells growth.
Keywords Electromagnetic fields, Calcium ion, Calcium oscillations, Stem cells, Tumor stem cells, Biosafety
Introduction
Since the late nineteenth century, electromagnetic wave has been proved to exist in the physical field. With the advancement of EMF researches, Reiter R, Persinger MA, Frey AH and others have summarized the biologi- cal effects and applications of electromagnetic fields in the late twentieth century [1–3]. On this basis, Electro- magnetic fields therapy has gradually been accepted and widely valued. Electromagnetic field has been active in clinical treatment and research applications as a versatile therapeutic expert for nearly 50 years, such as bone repair
*Correspondence: Chaoxu Liu chaoxuliu@hotmail.com Hua Wu wuhua@hust.edu.cn
1 Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, Hubei, China
[4], treatment of osteoarthritis [5], treatment of degen- erative nerve diseases [6] and tumor suppression [7], etc. The initiating mechanism for the complex bioregulatory effects of electromagnetic fields on different tissues and cells is still unclear, and this paper suggests that intracel- lular calcium ion may play a key role (Fig. 1).
Intracellular calcium homeostasis is closely related to cell fate, such as proliferation, differentiation, metabo- lism, apoptosis, etc. [8]. In most cases, calcium homeo- stasis is achieved through calcium channels in cell membranes, receptors and intracellular calcium dynam- ics [9]. When cells are subjected to external mechanical stimulation, voltage-gated ion channels in the cell mem- brane open and intracellular calcium ion concentra- tion rises [10]. The calcium ion concentration is about 100 nM in a resting-state and rises to about 1000 nM in an activated state. Hence the upregulated calcium ion activates various calcium-sensitive cascade reactions, such as calmodulin (CaM), cAMP, NOS, Ins (1,4,5) P3,
© The Author(s) 2023. Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecom- mons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

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