Cruising Review

PEMF Bone Healing and Joint Preservation

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Comprehensive review of Bemer and PEMF (Pulsed Electromagnetic Field). Explore scientific research, studies, and articles on the benefits and applications of Bemer and PEMF therapy for health and wellness.

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applied sciences
Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Stimulation in Bone Healing and Joint Preservation: A Narrative Review of the Literature
Gaetano Caruso 1 , Leo Massari 2, Sebastiano Lentini 1, Stefania Setti 3 , Edoardo Gambuti 1 and Achille Saracco 1,*
Citation: Caruso, G.; Massari, L.; Lentini, S.; Setti, S.; Gambuti, E.; Saracco, A. Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Stimulation in Bone Healing and Joint Preservation: A Narrative Review of the Literature. Appl. Sci. 2024,14,1789. 10.3390/app14051789
Academic Editor: Francesca Silvagno
Received: 27 November 2023 Revised: 22 January 2024 Accepted: 20 February 2024 Published: 22 February 2024
2 3
Abstract: Background: Biophysical stimulation therapy, Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields (PEMFs) and Capacitively Coupled Electric Fields (CCEFs) have significantly increased in the last twenty years. Due to this, it is necessary to have clear information regarding their efficacy, therapeutic indications and expected objectives. Application fields: There is a unanimous opinion regarding the usefulness of applying biophysical therapy on the bone compartment both in terms of the tissue-healing process and the symptoms associated with this situation. Differently, but no less important, positive results were observed in the joint compartment, especially with regard to the inhibition of the inflammatory process. Good results for chondroprotection were obtained in vitro and after a surgical procedure. New studies have shown the effectiveness also in cases of osteoporosis. Conclusions: The effectiveness of PEMFs and CCEFs on the bone-healing process and on joint preservation in the orthopedic and traumatology fields has consolidated evidence in the literature. We have also found positive results for symptoms and patient compliance with rehabilitation therapies. Therefore, their notable applications can be envisaged in the fields of prosthetic surgery and sports medicine.
Keywords: pulsed electromagnetic fields; PEMFs; capacitively coupled electric fields; CCEFs; bone healing; joint preservation; traumatology; sport medicine; hip and knee replacement; reverse shoulder arthroplasty
1. Introduction
Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) bring about a biological response by directly inducing electric currents in the target area. This treatment was introduced by Bassett et al. in 1977 [1]. In 1979, PEMFs were approved by the Food and Drug Administration. Subse- quently, this therapeutic approach has been used with increasing success in the orthopedic field. In fact, the musculoskeletal system is highly sensitive to such stimuli. Clinical biophysics exploits the effect of PEMFs on biological systems to obtain benefits during different biological processes.
Over the last twenty years, the approach to this discipline has changed considerably, leading to a clear improvement in the physical parameters relevant to these processes with consequent optimization of therapies and clinical effects.
Biophysical stimulation can reduce potential risks by promoting osteogenic stimulus and reducing healing times. There are numerous publications in the literature in favor of the use of these physical therapies in risk conditions; however, they must be used following the correct administration criteria [2].
The possibility of delivering the therapy locally allows you to optimize the treat- ment while avoiding any dose-dependent side effects. This characteristic, which makes it potentially suitable for chronic therapies, excludes its use for systemic pathologies [1].
Department of Neurosciences and Rehabilitation, University of Ferrara, c/o “S. Anna”, Via Aldo Moro 8, 44124 Ferrara, Italy; (G.C.); (S.L.); (E.G.) Department of Translational Medicine Romagna, University of Ferrara, c/o “S. Anna”, Via Aldo Moro 8, 44124 Ferrara, Italy;
IGEA SpA—Clinical Biophysics, Via Parmenide 10/A, 41012 Carpi, Italy; * Correspondence:
Copyright: © 2024 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// 4.0/).
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14, 1789.

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