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PEMF Skelatal Cell Repair vs Cell Damage Oxidative Stress


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Publication Title | PEMF Skelatal Cell Repair vs Cell Damage Oxidative Stress

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International Journal of
Molecular Sciences
Article
Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields Induce Skeletal Muscle Cell Repair by Sustaining the Expression of Proteins Involved in the Response to Cellular Damage and Oxidative Stress
Silvia Maiullari 1, Antonella Cicirelli 1, Angela Picerno 1, Francesca Giannuzzi 1 , Loreto Gesualdo 2,
Angela Notarnicola 3
, Fabio Sallustio 2,*,† and Biagio Moretti 3,†
1
2 3
* Correspondence: fabio.sallustio@uniba.it; Tel./Fax: +39-080-5478878

Abstract: Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) are employed as a non-invasive medicinal therapy, especially in the orthopedic field to stimulate bone regeneration. However, the effect of PEMF on skeletal muscle cells (SkMC) has been understudied. Here, we studied the potentiality of 1.5 mT PEMF to stimulate early regeneration of human SkMC. We showed that human SkMC stimulated with 1.5 mT PEMF for four hours repeated for two days can stimulate cell proliferation without inducing cell apoptosis or significant impairment of the metabolic activity. Interestingly, when we simulated physical damage of the muscle tissue by a scratch, we found that the same PEMF treatment can speed up the regenerative process, inducing a more complete cell migration to close the scratch and wound healing. Moreover, we investigated the molecular pattern induced by PEMF among 26 stress-related cell proteins. We found that the expression of 10 proteins increased after two consecutive days of PEMF stimulation for 4 h, and most of them were involved in response processes to oxidative stress. Among these proteins, we found that heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), which can promote muscle recovery, inhibits apoptosis and decreases inflammation in skeletal muscle, together with thioredoxin, paraoxonase, and superoxide dismutase (SOD2), which can also promote skeletal muscle regeneration following injury. Altogether, these data support the possibility of using PEMF to increase SkMC regeneration and, for the first time, suggest a possible molecular mechanism, which consists of sustaining the expression of antioxidant enzymes to control the important inflammatory and oxidative process occurring following muscle damage.
Keywords: PEMF; skeletal muscle cells; cellular damage
1. Introduction
Skeletal muscle has a sophisticated architecture optimized for efficient function. Its contractile capacity is orchestrated by well-organized myofibers, which originate from the fusion of myoblasts, ultimately forming multinucleated myotubes [1]
Skeletal muscle tissue is renowned for its remarkable regenerative capacity in response to minor injuries or damage. This regenerative capacity is primarily supported by muscle stem cells, known as satellite cells, which lie in a quiescent state but are ready to spring into action to repair and regenerate damaged muscle tissue [2,3]. This self-repair capacity allows skeletal muscle tissue to rapidly recover from trauma and adapt to a variety of external stimuli, maintaining its functionality and structural integrity. However, in the
Department of Interdisciplinary Medicine, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, 70124 Bari, Italy; silvia.maiullari@uniba.it (S.M.); antonella.cicirelli@uniba.it (A.C.); angela.picerno@uniba.it (A.P.); francesca.giannuzzi@uniba.it (F.G.)
Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation Unit, Department of Precision and Regenerative Medicine and Ionian Area (DIMEPRE-J), University of Bari, Piazza G. Cesare 11, 70124 Bari, Italy; loreto.gesualdo@uniba.it Orthopaedic and Trauma Unit, Department of Translational Biomedicine and Neuroscience “DiBraiN”, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Piazza G. Cesare 11, 70124 Bari, Italy; angela.notarnicola@uniba.it (A.N.); biagio.moretti@uniba.it (B.M.)
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Citation: Maiullari, S.; Cicirelli, A.; Picerno, A.; Giannuzzi, F.; Gesualdo, L.; Notarnicola, A.; Sallustio, F.; Moretti, B. Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields Induce Skeletal Muscle Cell Repair by Sustaining the Expression of Proteins Involved in the Response to Cellular Damage and Oxidative Stress. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24, 16631. https://doi.org/10.3390/ ijms242316631
Academic Editors: Alberto Ruffilli and Cesare Faldini
Received: 14 October 2023 Revised: 9 November 2023 Accepted: 17 November 2023 Published: 23 November 2023
Copyright: © 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/ 4.0/).
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24, 16631. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms242316631 https://www.mdpi.com/journal/ijms

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