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Targeting Adenosine Signalling in Knee Chondropathy PEMF


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International Journal of
Molecular Sciences
Review
Targeting Adenosine Signalling in Knee Chondropathy: The Combined Action of Polydeoxyribonucleotide and Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields: A Current Concept Review
Lorenzo Moretti 1,† , Davide Bizzoca 1,2,*,† , Alessandro Geronimo 3, Andrea Michele Abbaticchio 3, Francesco Luca Moretti 4, Arianna Carlet 3 , Francesco Fischetti 5 and Biagio Moretti 3
1
2
3 4
5
* Correspondence: davide.bizzoca@uniba.it
† These authors contributed equally to this work.
Abstract: Chondropathy of the knee is one of the most frequent degenerative cartilage pathologies with advancing age. Scientific research has, in recent years, advanced new therapies that target adenosine A2 receptors, which play a significant role in human health against many disease states by activating different protective effects against cell sufferance and damage. Among these, it has been observed that intra-articular injections of polydeoxyribonucleotides (PDRN) and Pulsed Elec- tromagnetic Fields (PEMF) can stimulate the adenosine signal, with significant regenerative and healing effects. This review aims to depict the role and therapeutic modulation of A2A receptors in knee chondropathy. Sixty articles aimed at providing data for our study were included in this review. The present paper highlights how intra-articular injections of PDRN create beneficial effects by reducing pain and improving functional clinical scores, thanks to their anti-inflammatory action and the important healing and regenerating power of the stimulation of cell growth, production of collagen, and the extracellular matrix. PEMF therapy is a valid option in the conservative treatment of different articular pathologies, including early OA, patellofemoral pain syndrome, spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee (SONK), and in athletes. PEMF could also be used as a supporting therapy after an arthroscopic knee procedure total knee arthroplasty to reduce the post-operative inflamma- tory state. The proposal of new therapeutic approaches capable of targeting the adenosine signal, such as the intra-articular injection of PDRN and the use of PEMF, has shown excellent beneficial results compared to conventional treatments. These are presented as an extra weapon in the fight against knee chondropathy.
Keywords: knee chondropathy; polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN); Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields; PEMF; A2A receptor; adenosine signalling
1. Introduction
Knee osteoarthritis (OA) and chondropathy are the most frequent degenerative carti- lage pathologies in elderly people [1].
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most important and frequent joint pathology on a degenera- tive basis, which leads to pain and disability in elderly people. OA has been defined by The Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) as “a disorder involving movable
Orthopaedics Unit—UOSD Vertebral Surgery, AOU Consorziale Policlinico, Piazza Giulio Cesare 11, 70124 Bari, Italy; lorenzo.moretti@libero.it
Ph.D. Course in Public Health, Clinical Medicine and Oncology, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Piazza Giulio Cesare 11, 70124 Bari, Italy
Orthopaedics Unit, DiBraiN, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Piazza Giulio Cesare 11, 70124 Bari, Italy National Centre for Chemicals, Cosmetic Products and Consumer Protection, National Institute of Health, 00161 Rome, Italy
Departement DiBraiN, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Piazza Giulio Cesare 11, 70124 Bari, Italy
Citation: Moretti, L.; Bizzoca, D.; Geronimo, A.; Abbaticchio, A.M.; Moretti, F.L.; Carlet, A.; Fischetti, F.; Moretti, B. Targeting Adenosine Signalling in Knee Chondropathy: The Combined Action of Polydeoxyribonucleotide and Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields: A Current Concept Review. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24,10090. https://doi.org/10.3390/ ijms241210090
Academic Editor: Laura Mangiavini
Received: 24 February 2023 Revised: 16 May 2023 Accepted: 30 May 2023 Published: 13 June 2023
Copyright: © 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/ 4.0/).
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24, 10090. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms241210090 https://www.mdpi.com/journal/ijms

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