Avocado: Publications and Research from SwissMixIt

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Avocado Botanical Information

AVOCADO: Hass avocados, the most common commercial avocado cultivars in the world, contain a variety of essential nutrients and important phytochemicals. avocado, Fruit, monounsaturated fat, cardiovascular health, normal blood glucose, weight control, healthy aging, Persea americana, Mediterranean, dietary pattern, plant-based, oleic acid, proximal composition, carotenoids, minerals, L-DRAC, fatty acids, avocado seed, EPR, radical scavenging, oxidation induction time, differential scanning calorimetry, emulsion, antioxidant, oil, lipid peroxidation, metabolites, antioxidants, anticancer, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases (CVD), bioavailability and pharmacokinetic, plant oil, barrier function, barrier repair, wound healing, inflammation, antioxidant activity, skin aging, antimicrobial effect, Avocado fruit, CHCl3-soluble extract, aliphatic acetogenins (alkanols), EGFR, ERK1/2, oral

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Hass Avocado Composition and Potential Health Effects Hass avocados, the most common commercial avocado cultivars in the world, contain a variety of essential nutrients and important phytochemicals. Although the official avocado serving is one-fifth of a fruit (30 g), according to NHANES analysis the average consumption is one-half an avocado (68 g), which provides a nutrient and phytochemical dense food consisting of the following: dietary fiber (4.6 g), total sugar (0.2 g), potassium (345 mg), sodium (5.5 mg), magnesium (19.5 mg), vitamin A (43 μg), vitamin C (6.0 mg), vitamin E (1.3 mg), vitamin K1 (14 μg), folate (60 mg), vitamin B-6 (0.2 mg), niacin (1.3 mg), pantothenic acid (1.0 mg), riboflavin (0.1 mg), choline (10 mg), lutein/zeaxanthin (185 μg), phytosterols (57 mg), and high-monounsaturated fatty acids (6.7 g) and 114 kcals or 1.7 kcal/g. The avocado oil consists of 71% monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), 13% polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and 16% saturated fatty acids (SFA), which helps to promote healthy blood lipid profiles and enhance the bioavailability of fat soluble vitamins and phytochemicals from the avocado or other fruits and vegetables, naturally low in fat, which are consumed with avocados. There are eight preliminary clinical studies showing that avocado consumption helps support cardiovascular health. Exploratory studies suggest that avocados may support weight management and healthy aging.

The Forgotten Fruit: A Case for Consuming Avocado Within the Traditional Mediterranean Diet The avocado fruit thrives in a Mediterranean climate, is produced in the region, and is rich in oleic acid and fiber, yet avocados are not commonly consumed within the traditional Mediterranean diet. Based on the existing research studies on the health benefits of avocado consumption and the continued investigation into the nutritional attributes of the avocado, a case can be made for including avocados as part of the Mediterranean dietary pattern.

Avocado consumption is associated with better diet quality and nutrient intake, and lower metabolic syndrome risk in US adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001–2008 Avocados contain monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) dietary fiber, essential nutrients and phytochemicals. However, no epidemiologic data exist on their effects on diet quality, weight management and other metabolic disease risk factors. The objective of this research was to investigate the relationships between avocado consumption and overall diet quality, energy and nutrient intakes, physiological indicators of health, and risk of metabolic syndrome.

Investigation of bioactive compounds from various avocado varieties (Persea americana Miller) Avocado (Persea Americana Miller), is a fruit with significant nutritional quality, such as high levels of fatty acids, fibers, proteins, antioxidant compounds, vitamin E, β-carotene and minerals, particularly iron (Daiuto et al., 2014).

Avocado Seed: A Comparative Study of Antioxidant Content and Capacity in Protecting Oil Models from Oxidation Avocado seeds, which are a residue of the food industry, could be used to obtain extracts with high antioxidant power. This implies that avocado seed residue may have a use as a natural antioxidant source, providing added value to organic waste.

NUTRITIONAL AND PHARMCEUTICAL BENIFITS OF AVOCADO PLANT Persea Americana Mill. or Avocado is a tropical native American fruit. It belongs to the Lauraceae family. The name 'Avocado' has been derived from the Aztec word 'ahucatl'. 'Alligator pear' and 'butter fruit' are its' alternative names. It has been traditionally cultivated for food and medicinal purposes due to its high nutrition content as well as for its therapeutic properties. The predominant carotenoid in Avocado is Lutein. α-carotene, β-carotene, zeaxanthin, neoxanthin and violaxanthin are the other carotenoids present in small quantities in it. Avocado plant and their seed, fruit, pulp, avocado oil part use for various type of activity as cosmetic, refined cooking oil, weight management program, heart disease, stroke and cancer.

Anti Aging Avocado seeds oil can be used as natural solvents to extract fatty acids from phytoplankton using the sonication method. Avocado seeds are still classified as waste and have not been utilized. Avocado production in Indonesia is quite high, data from the Central Bureau of Statistics (BPS) states that avocado production in Indonesia in 2014 reached 307,326 tons per year and continues to increase every year, along with the increase in avocado production, so avocado seed waste continues to increase In addition to non-polar avocado seed oil also contains chemical compounds that are useful and needed by the skin such as vitamin A, vitamin B2, niacin, pantothenic acid, vitamin C, vitamin E and folic acid. From the explanation above so that conducted the research on The Potential of Chlorella vulgaris and Avocado Seed Oil as Anti-Aging Cream Material.

The Odyssey of Bioactive Compounds in Avocado (Persea americana) and Their Health Benefits In particular, studies reporting the major metabolites of avocado, their antioxidant as well as bioavailability and pharmacokinetic properties, are summarized and assessed. Furthermore, the potential of avocado in novel drug discovery for the prevention and treatment of cancer, microbial, inflammatory, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases is highlighted. This review also proposes several interesting future directions for avocado research. Considering their immense popularity and diverse biochemical content, avocados have also been extensively used in the food, nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. In addition, their health-benefiting properties have been investigated in a number of preclinical and clinical studies in the last few decades.

Avocados (monounsaturated fatty acids), weight loss and serum lipids The consumption of diets enriched with monounsaturated fatty acids have been related to a lower rate of coronary heart disease, mainly due to their positive effects on serum lipids. The avocado is a fruit rich in monounsaturated fatty acids and other nutrients, offering protection against coronary heart disease. This article will review the scientific evidence on avocados, and their impact on weight loss and serum lipids.

Anti-Inflammatory and Skin Barrier Repair Effects of Topical Application of Some Plant Oils Plant oils have been utilized for a variety of purposes throughout history, with their integration into foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products. They are now being increasingly recognized for their effects on both skin diseases and the restoration of cutaneous homeostasis. This article briefly reviews the available data on biological influences of topical skin applications of some plant oils (olive oil, olive pomace oil, sunflower seed oil, coconut oil, safflower seed oil, argan oil, soybean oil, peanut oil, sesame oil, avocado oil, borage oil, jojoba oil, oat oil, pomegranate seed oil, almond oil, bitter apricot oil, rose hip oil, German chamomile oil, and shea butter). Thus, it focuses on the therapeutic benefits of these plant oils according to their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects on the skin, promotion of wound healing and repair of skin barrier.

Antimicrobial effects of topical skin cream containing natural oil mixtures against Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and Malassezia pachydermatis The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of a topical skin cream containing a mixture of emu oil, jojoba oil, avocado oil, and tea tree oil against the canine skin pathogens Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and Malassezia pachydermatis. Three S. pseudintermedius isolates from dogs and a type strain of M. pachydermatis were used. Based on the standards of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal bactericidal/fungicidal concentration (MBC/MFC) were determined. In addition, microbial inactivation time was determined for both pathogens. The MICs against S. pseudintermedius and M. pachydermatis were 0.23% and 0.63%, while the MBC/MFCs were 7.5% and 5%, respectively. In assessments of the microbial inactivation time, after 12 h of incubation with the cream, the growth of both pathogens was com- pletely inhibited. These results suggest that the skin cream tested here can be used as a substitute for generally used antibiotic/antifungal agents.

Anti-oxidant, Anti-inflammatory and Anti-cancer Activities of Avocado (Persea americana) Fruit and Seed Extract Avocado (Persea americana) seeds represent under-utilised resources and waste issues in avocado processing. This study was produced to compare the lipid contents of the avocado bulb and seed. The study also evaluated the anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer potentiality of each extract. Oleic acid was the predominant unsaturated fatty acid in a chloroform/methanol extract of P. americana fruit and seed. The seed extract was richer with sterol compounds than the fruit extract. The extracts exhibited anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities against cell line of colon cancer (HCT116) and cell line of liver cancer (HePG2) in a dose-dependent manner. It also exhibited powerful scavenging of free radical by using- DPPH and ABTS. IC50 of seed extract against the aforementioned cancer cell lines was more or less near the values of a reference drug (sorafinib). In conclusion, P. americana seed extract has more powerful effects than avocado bulb extract. The seeds should not be neglected.

Evaluating the Effect of Four Extracts of Avocado Fruit on Esophageal

Squamous Carcinoma and Colon Adenocarcinoma Cell Lines in Comparison

with Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells
Avocado fruit is rich in phytochemicals, which play an important role in inhibition of growth of cancer cells. The current study for the first time demonstrates the anti-cancer effect of avocado fruit extracts on two cancers common in Iran. Therefore, it is suggested that the fruit extracts can be considered as appropriate complementary treatments in treatment of esophageal and colon cancers.

Aliphatic acetogenin constituents of avocado fruits inhibit human oral cancer cell proliferation by targeting the EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 pathway Avocado (Persea americana) fruits are consumed as part of the human diet and extracts have shown growth inhibitory effects in various types of human cancer cells, although the effectiveness of individual components and their underlying mechanism are poorly understood. When compounds 1 and 2 were combined they synergistically inhibited c-RAF (Ser338) and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204) phosphorylation, and human oral cancer cell proliferation. The present data suggest that the potential anticancer activity of avocado fruits is due to a combination of specific aliphatic acetogenins that target two key components of the EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 cancer pathway.

Industrial Viability Study of the Avocado Seed Oil The study explored the chemical industrial potential embedded in avocado seed oil. Oil was extracted from the seed of the avocado. The per cent yield gave 18.1%. The extracted oil was subjected to important physicochemical parameter analysis, the results of the analysis were compared with literature. The refractive index was 1.457; iodine value was 43.86g/100g, the acid value was 2.47, FFA was 0.51%, peroxide value was 26meq/kg, saponification value was 228mgKOH/g. The fatty acids present in the oil were determined, showing oleic acid (67.80%) as a dominance fatty acid present in the avocado seed oil. Also, the FT-IR spectrum of avocado seed oil revealed the presence of double bond which serves as a reactive site for industrial chemical modification of the oil. Avocado seed oil can, therefore, serve as a lubricant, plasticiser, and stabilizer in the industrial chemical processes.

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