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The Wonders of Turmeric: Maximizing Benefits Through Optimal Forms

Turmeric, the golden spice that has graced the shelves of kitchens and medicine cabinets for centuries, is more than just a colorful addition to meals. Known scientifically as Curcuma longa, turmeric has been revered in Ayurvedic and traditional medicine for its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and potential therapeutic properties. The secret behind its power lies in curcumin, the compound that gives turmeric its vibrant yellow hue and potent health benefits. This article explores the benefits of turmeric, the best forms for optimal absorption, and its uses in tea and body lotion.

Health Benefits of Turmeric

• Anti-inflammatory Effects: Chronic inflammation is thought to play a significant role in many diseases. Curcumin, with its strong anti-inflammatory properties, can match the effectiveness of some anti-inflammatory drugs, without the side effects.

• Antioxidant Capacity: Turmeric's curcuminoids are powerful antioxidants that neutralize free radicals, which are compounds that can damage cells and lead to chronic diseases.

• Brain Health: Curcumin boosts levels of the brain hormone BDNF, which increases the growth of new neurons and fights various degenerative processes in the brain.

• Heart Health: It improves the function of the endothelium, the lining of the blood vessels, and is as effective as exercise in improving heart health.

• Cancer Prevention: Research suggests that curcumin can reduce angiogenesis (growth of new blood vessels in tumors), metastasis (spread of cancer), and contribute to the death of cancerous cells.

Enhancing Absorption

Curcumin's benefits, however, are often limited by its low bioavailability. The human body doesn't absorb curcumin well on its own, but there are ways to enhance this:

• Black Pepper: Piperine, a natural substance in black pepper, enhances the absorption of curcumin by 2,000%. Most high-quality turmeric supplements include piperine to increase bioavailability.

• Fat: Curcumin is fat-soluble, so taking it with a fatty meal increases absorption.

• Curcumin Supplements: For those looking for a more concentrated intake, supplements provide a higher dose of curcumin. Opt for ones with bioperine (piperine) or that are formulated for enhanced absorption.

Turmeric in Tea and Body Lotion

• Turmeric Tea: A popular way to enjoy turmeric is in tea. Turmeric tea can be made by steeping grated turmeric root or turmeric powder in hot water. Adding black pepper and a bit of fat like coconut milk can enhance curcumin’s bioavailability. Turmeric tea is celebrated not only for its health benefits but also for its soothing, warm flavor.

• Turmeric Body Lotion: Turmeric’s anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties make it an excellent ingredient for body lotions. When applied topically, turmeric can help reduce redness, blemishes, and inflammation of the skin. Some studies suggest that turmeric may also speed up wound healing and calm the pores to decrease acne.

Conclusion

Turmeric's wide range of health benefits makes it a valuable addition to anyone's dietary and skincare regimen. However, to truly harness the power of curcumin, it's important to focus on the form of turmeric and the method of consumption to enhance its bioavailability. Whether you're sipping on a cup of turmeric tea or incorporating turmeric body lotion into your skincare routine, this ancient spice holds the key to a wealth of health benefits.

In the pursuit of wellness, incorporating turmeric into your daily life could be a golden choice.

Turmeric

TURMERIC :Turmeric, a plant in the ginger family, is native to Southeast Asia and is grown commercially in that region, primarily in India. Its rhizome (underground stem) is used as a culinary spice and traditional medicine. Curcumin is a major component of turmeric, and the activities of turmeric are commonly attributed to curcuminoids (curcumin and closely related substances). Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, improves liver function and more. Turmeric is a spice that can prevent the release of histamine from mast cells and can even inhibit anaphylactic reactions. Curcumin gives turmeric its yellow color. Recent studies have shown curcumin may be a electrode enhancer for hydrogen fuel cells and batteries.

Also known as: Curcuma longa, synonym Curcuma domestica; Curcuma aromatica. Turmeric is fat soluble—meaning it dissolves in fats. Without the fats binding it, the turmeric struggles to make it through the liver and stomach without being absorbed prematurely, and into the small intestines where it can be transferred through to the blood. Boil turmeric in water for 10 minutes or combine with fats for availability.

Keywords: curcumin, turmeric, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, polyphenol, Curcuma longa L., curcuma, spice, curcuminoids, pharmacological effects, biotechnological applications, curcumin metabolites, tetrahydrocurcumin, mechanisms of action, applications, solubility, absorption, bioavailability, hydrolysis, applications, clinical trial, curcumin, human diseases, inflammation, safety, Curcumin as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and lipophilic action improves the cognitive functions in patients with AD., puffing, high hydrostatic pressure, antioxidant, curcumin, extraction, synthesis, degradation, metal chelation, nanoformulation, ageing, anti-cancer, autophagy, microbiota, senescence, senolytics, Turmeric, Curcumin, Cholesterol, Cardiovascular risk, Triglycerides, Meta-analysis, curcumin, cancer, cell signaling pathways, Curcuma longa, Curcuma longa/pharmacognosy. Curcumin/use/topical anti-inflammatory. Cosmetics/use of natural products. Curcuminoid pigments. Skin penetration. Natural products/use in cosmetics., Tumeric, Sebum, Curcuma longa, Sebumeter, Skin, Acne, curcumin, anticancer, structure activity relationship, cellular pathway, mechanism o

Summary of Abstracts:

Curcumin: A Review of Its Effects on Human Health [ Piperine can increase bioavailability by 2000 percent. ] Turmeric, a spice that has long been recognized for its medicinal properties, has received interest from both the medical/scientific world and from culinary enthusiasts, as it is the major source of the polyphenol curcumin. It aids in the management of oxidative and inflammatory conditions, metabolic syndrome, arthritis, anxiety, and hyperlipidemia. It may also help in the management of exercise-induced inflammation and muscle soreness, thus enhancing recovery and performance in active people. In addition, a relatively low dose of the complex can provide health benefits for people that do not have diagnosed health conditions. Most of these benefits can be attributed to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Ingesting curcumin by itself does not lead to the associated health benefits due to its poor bioavailability, which appears to be primarily due to poor absorption, rapid metabolism, and rapid elimination. There are several components that can increase bioavailability. For example, piperine is the major active component of black pepper and, when combined in a complex with curcumin, has been shown to increase bioavailability by 2000%. Curcumin combined with enhancing agents provides multiple health benefits.

Turmeric and Its Major Compound Curcumin on Health: Bioactive Effects and Safety Profiles for Food, Pharmaceutical, Biotechnological and Medicinal Applications [ antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antidiabetic, hypocholesterolemic, anti-thrombotic, antihepatotoxic, anti-diarrheal, carminative, diuretic, antirheumatic, hypotensive, antimicrobial, antiviral, antioxidant, larvicidal, insecticidal, antivenomous, and antityrosinase effects ] Curcumin, a yellow polyphenolic pigment from the Curcuma longa L. (turmeric) rhizome, has been used for centuries for culinary and food coloring purposes, and as an ingredient for various medicinal preparations, widely used in Ayurveda and Chinese medicine. In recent decades, their biological activities have been extensively studied. Thus, this review aims to offer an in-depth discussion of curcumin applications for food and biotechnological industries, and on health promotion and disease prevention, with particular emphasis on its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, anticancer, hepatoprotective, and cardioprotective effects.

Highly Bioavailable Forms of Curcumin and Promising Avenues for Curcumin-Based Research and Application: A Review Curcumin exerts a wide range of beneficial physiological and pharmacological activities, including antioxidant, anti-amyloid, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-neoplastic, immune-modulating, metabolism regulating, anti-depressant, neuroprotective and tissue protective effects. However, its poor solubility and poor absorption in the free form in the gastrointestinal tract and its rapid biotransformation to inactive metabolites greatly limit its utility as a health-promoting agent and dietary supplement. Recent advances in micro- and nano-formulations of curcumin with greatly enhanced absorption resulting in desirable blood levels of the active forms of curcumin now make it possible to address a wide range of potential applications, including pain management, and as tissue protective. Using these forms of highly bioavailable curcumin now enable a broad spectrum of appropriate studies to be conducted. This review discusses the formulations designed to enhance bioavailability, metabolism of curcumin, relationships between solubility and particle size relative to bioavailability, human pharmacokinetic studies involving formulated curcumin products, the widely used but inappropriate practice of hydrolyzing plasma samples for quantification of blood curcumin, current applications of curcumin and its metabolites and promising directions for health maintenance and applications.

Therapeutic Roles of Curcumin: Lessons Learned from Clinical Trials [ Curcumin has also shown protection against hepatic conditions, chronic arsenic exposure, and alcohol intoxication. ] Extensive research over the past half century has shown that curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a component of the golden spice turmeric (Curcuma longa), can modulate multiple cell signaling pathways. Extensive clinical trials over the past quarter century have addressed the pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy of this nutraceutical against numerous diseases in humans. Some promising effects have been observed in patients with various pro-inflammatory diseases including cancer, cardiovascular disease, arthritis, uveitis, ulcerative proctitis, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel disease, tropical pancreatitis, peptic ulcer, gastric ulcer, idiopathic orbital inflammatory pseudotumor, oral lichen planus, gastric inflammation, vitiligo, psoriasis, acute coronary syndrome, atherosclerosis, diabetes, diabetic nephropathy, diabetic microangiopathy, lupus nephritis, renal conditions, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, β-thalassemia, biliary dyskinesia, Dejerine-Sottas disease, cholecystitis, and chronic bacterial prostatitis. Curcumin has also shown protection against hepatic conditions, chronic arsenic exposure, and alcohol intoxication. Dose-escalating studies have indicated the safety of curcumin at doses as high as 12 g/day over 3 months. Curcumin’s pleiotropic activities emanate from its ability to modulate numerous signaling molecules such as pro-inflammatory cytokines, apoptotic proteins, NF–κB, cyclooxygenase-2, 5-LOX, STAT3, C-reactive protein, prostaglandin E2, prostate-specific antigen, adhesion molecules, phosphorylase kinase, transforming growth factor-β, triglyceride, ET-1, creatinine, HO-1, AST, and ALT in human participants. In clinical trials, curcumin has been used either alone or in combination with other agents. Various formulations of curcumin, including nanoparticles, liposomal encapsulation, emulsions, capsules, tablets, and powder, have been examined. In this review, we discuss in detail the various human diseases in which the effect of curcumin has been investigated.

The effect of curcumin (turmeric) on Alzheimer's disease: An overview [ Alternative approach to Alzheimer's, beta amyloid plaques, curcumin, curcumin and dementia, epidemiology, turmeric ] This paper discusses the effects of curcumin on patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Curcumin (Turmeric), an ancient Indian herb used in curry powder, has been extensively studied in modern medicine and Indian systems of medicine for the treatment of various medical conditions, including cystic fibrosis, haemorrhoids, gastric ulcer, colon cancer, breast cancer, atherosclerosis, liver diseases and arthritis. It has been used in various types of treatments for dementia and traumatic brain injury. Curcumin also has a potential role in the prevention and treatment of AD. Curcumin as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and lipophilic action improves the cognitive functions in patients with AD. A growing body of evidence indicates that oxidative stress, free radicals, beta amyloid, cerebral deregulation caused by bio-metal toxicity and abnormal inflammatory reactions contribute to the key event in Alzheimer's disease pathology. Due to various effects of curcumin, such as decreased Beta-amyloid plaques, delayed degradation of neurons, metal-chelation, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and decreased microglia formation, the overall memory in patients with AD has improved. This paper reviews the various mechanisms of actions of curcumin in AD and pathology.

Enhanced Antioxidant Capacity of Puffed Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) by High Hydrostatic Pressure Extraction (HHPE) of Bioactive Compounds Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) is known for its health benefits. Several previous studies revealed that curcumin, the main active compound in turmeric, has antioxidant capacity. It has been previously demonstrated that puffing, the physical processing using high heat and pressure, of turmeric increases the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities by increasing phenolic compounds in the extract. The current study sought to determine if high hydrostatic pressure extraction (HHPE), a non-thermal extraction at over 100 MPa, aids in the chemical changes and antioxidant functioning of turmeric.

The Chemistry of Curcumin: From Extraction to Therapeutic Agent [ Aqueous curcumin solutions can be prepared by adding surfactants, lipids, albumins, cyclodextrins, biopolymers. Curcumin has been found to be an excellent scavenger of most ROS, a property that bestows curcumin with antioxidant activity in normal cells. Curcumin undergoes chemical degradation in aqueous-organic solutions and the degradation increases as the pH is increased, which is of a serious concern in its applications. Although not fully understood, it is believed that the degradation is by hydrolysis through the diketo moiety. However the degradation is significantly decreased when curcumin is attached to lipids, liposomes, albumins, cyclodextrin, cucurbituryl, surfactants, polymers and many other macromolecular and microheterogenous systems. Curcumin undergoes much faster degradation when exposed to sunlight. Curcumin forms strong complexes with most of the known metal ions. Curcumin is a monobasic bidentate ligand and forms stable complexes with almost all the metals and non-metals. Curcumin-metal complexes not only modify the physico-chemical properties of curcumin but they also affect the biological reactivity of the metals. Due to the reversible electron transfer reactions with superoxide ions, Cu2+ and Mn2+ complexes of curcumin act as superoxide dismutase enzyme mimics. Metal complexes of curcumin have greater significance in view of the pathology of Alzheimer’s disease, where it has been found that due to its lipophilic nature, curcumin can cross the blood brain barrier and chelate metal ions that are toxic to the neurons. The fluorescence quantum yield of curcumin is drastically reduced on metal chelation. The absorption spectrum of curcumin is altered on complexation with metals. The water insolubility and low bioavailability of curcumin in cells have prompted researchers to develop new formulations based on biocompatible organic substances like liposomes, polyethylene glycols, biopolymers, cellulose, corn oil, hydrogels ... curcumin is solubilised by getting entrapped in hydrophobic pockets, mainly through hydrophobic interactions. Gold nanoparticle-based curcumin formulations have been prepared and reported recently. Gold nanoparticles find application in biology and medicine, for drug delivery, diagnosis and cancer treatment. Such gold-curcumin conjugates were reported to be hemocompatible and non-toxic. ] Curcumin, a pigment from turmeric, is one of the very few promising natural products that has been extensively investigated by researchers from both the biological and chemical point of view. While there are several reviews on the biological and pharmacological effects of curcumin, chemistry reviews are comparatively scarcer. In this article, an overview of different aspects of the unique chemistry research on curcumin will be discussed. These include methods for the extraction from turmeric, laboratory synthesis methods, chemical and photochemical degradation and the chemistry behind its metabolism. Additionally other chemical reactions that have biological relevance like nucleophilic addition reactions, and metal chelation will be discussed. Recent advances in the preparation of new curcumin nanoconjugates with metal and metal oxide nanoparticles will also be mentioned. Directions for future investigations to be undertaken in the chemistry of curcumin have also been suggested.

Anti-aging Role of Curcumin by Modulating the Inflammatory Markers [ Curcumin has a anti-aging role. ] Advanced age is associated with an accumulation of free radical damage, which leads to physiological and clinical modifications. Numerous pharmaceutical and nutraceuticals are considered to influence longevity and prompting healthy ageing. Therefore, the current study attempted to investigate Curcumin's role in the inflammatory indices as anti-ageing marker in albino Wistar rats. Conclusion: Finding of the study suggests that Curcumin exhibits favorable influence in slowing down of ageing process by suppressing age-related changes in inflammatory indices.

The Role of Curcumin in the Modulation of Ageing [ curcumin. It causes the elongation of the lifespan of model organisms, alleviates ageing symptoms and postpones the progression of age-related diseases in which cellular senescence is directly involved. It has been demonstrated that the elimination of senescent cells significantly improves the quality of life ] It is believed that postponing ageing is more effective and less expensive than the treatment

of particular age-related diseases. Compounds which could delay symptoms of ageing, especially natural products present in a daily diet, are intensively studied. One of them is curcumin. It causes the elongation of the lifespan of model organisms, alleviates ageing symptoms and postpones the progression of age-related diseases in which cellular senescence is directly involved. It has been demonstrated that the elimination of senescent cells significantly improves the quality of life of mice. There is a continuous search for compounds, named senolytic drugs, that selectively eliminate senescent cells from organisms.

Efficacy and safety of turmeric and

curcumin in lowering blood lipid levels in patients with cardiovascular risk factors: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials [ Turmeric and curcumin may protect patients at risk of CVD through improving serum lipid levels. Curcumin may be used as a well-tolerated dietary adjunct to conventional drugs. Further research is required to resolve uncertainties related to dosage form, dose and medication frequency of curcumin. ] Dyslipidemia is an important and common cardiovascular risk factor in the general population. The lipid-lowering effects of turmeric and curcumin are unconfirmed. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the efficacy and safety of turmeric and curcumin in lowering blood lipids in patients at risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Turmeric and curcumin may protect patients at risk of CVD through improving serum lipid levels. Curcumin may be used as a well-tolerated dietary adjunct to conventional drugs. Further research is required to resolve uncertainties related to dosage form, dose and medication frequency of curcumin.

Curcumin and Cancer [ Curcumin has been reported to modulate growth factors, enzymes, transcription factors, kinase, inflammatory cytokines, and proapoptotic (by upregulation) and antiapoptotic (by downregulation) proteins. ] Curcumin, a polyphenol extracted from Curcuma longa in 1815, has gained attention from scientists worldwide for its biological activities (e.g., antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiviral), among which its anticancer potential has been the most described and still remains under investigation. The present review focuses on the cell signaling pathways involved in cancer development and proliferation, and which are targeted by curcumin. Curcumin has been reported to modulate growth factors, enzymes, transcription factors, kinase, inflammatory cytokines, and proapoptotic (by upregulation) and antiapoptotic (by downregulation) proteins. This polyphenol compound, alone or combined with other agents, could represent an effective drug for cancer therapy.

Use of Curcuma longa in cosmetics: extraction of curcuminoid pigments, development of formulations, and in vitro skin permeation studies Curcuma longa is a ginger family aromatic herb (Zingiberaceae) whose rhizomes contain curcuminoid pigments, including curcumin, a compound known for its anti-inflammatory effects. The objective of this study was to obtain curcuminoid-rich extracts, develop topical formulations thereof, and assess the stability and skin permeation of these formulations. Curcuma longa extracts were obtained and used to develop formulations. Skin permeation studies were conducted in a modified Franz diffusion cell system, and skin retention of curcuminoid pigments was quantified in pig ear membrane. Prepared urea-containing gel-cream formulations were unstable, whereas all others had satisfactory stability and pseudoplastic rheological behavior. The amount of curcuminoid pigments recovered from the receptor solution was negligible. The skin concentration of curcuminoid pigments retained was positive (>20 μg/g of skin, mostly in the stratum corneum), considering the low skin permeability of curcumin. We conclude that development of topical formulations containing curcumin or Curcuma longa extract is feasible, as long as adjuvants are added to improve preservation and durability. The formulations developed in this study enabled penetration of curcumin limited to the superficial layers of the skin and then possibly without a risk of systemic action, thus permitting local use as a topical anti-inflammatory.

Topical Curcumin Nanocarriers are Neuroprotective in Eye Disease [ Collectively, these results suggest that our novel topical CN formulation has potential as an effective neuroprotective therapy in glaucoma and other eye diseases with neuronal pathology. ] Curcumin (1,7-bis-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5dione) is a polyphenol extracted from turmeric that has long been advocated for the treatment of a variety of conditions including neurodegenerative and inflammatory disorders. Despite this promise, the clinical use of curcumin has been limited by the poor solubility and low bioavailability of this molecule. In this article, we describe a novel nanocarrier formulation comprising Pluronic-F127 stabilised D-α-Tocopherol polyethene glycol 1000 succinate nanoparticles, which were used to successfully solubilize high concentrations (4.3 mg/mL) of curcumin. Characterisation with x-ray diffraction and in vitro release assays localise curcumin to the nanocarrier interior, with each particle measuring <20 nm diameter. Curcumin-loaded nanocarriers (CN) were found to significantly protect against cobalt chloride induced hypoxia and glutamate induced toxicity in vitro, with CN treatment significantly increasing R28 cell viability. Using established glaucoma-related in vivo models of ocular hypertension (OHT) and partial optic nerve transection (pONT), topical application of CN twice-daily for three weeks significantly reduced retinal ganglion cell loss compared to controls. Collectively, these results suggest that our novel topical CN formulation has potential as an effective neuroprotective therapy in glaucoma and other eye diseases with neuronal pathology.

Effect of Turmeric (Curcuma longa Zingiberaceae) Extract Cream on Human Skin Sebum Secretion [ The study demonstrates that the extract obtained from the rhizomes of turmeric plant can be used in skin preparations to regulate excessive sebum secretion in persons suffering from acne and related problems. ] The study demonstrates that the extract obtained from the rhizomes of turmeric plant can be used in skin preparations to regulate excessive sebum secretion in persons suffering from acne and related problems.

A Review of Curcumin and Its Derivatives as Anticancer Agents [ Curcumin, the active ingredient of the Curcuma longa plant, has received great attention over the past two decades as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer agent. In this review, a summary of the medicinal chemistry and pharmacology of curcumin and its derivatives in regard to anticancer activity, their main mechanisms of action, and cellular targets has been provided based on the literature data from the experimental and clinical evaluation of curcumin in cancer cell lines, animal models, and human subjects. ] Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the world and one of the major public health problems. Despite the great advances in cancer therapy, the incidence and mortality rates of cancer remain high. Therefore, the quest for more efficient and less toxic cancer treatment strategies is still at the forefront of current research. Curcumin, the active ingredient of the Curcuma longa plant, has received great attention over the past two decades as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer agent. In this review, a summary of the medicinal chemistry and pharmacology of curcumin and its derivatives in regard to anticancer activity, their main mechanisms of action, and cellular targets has been provided based on the literature data from the experimental and clinical evaluation of curcumin in cancer cell lines, animal models, and human subjects. In addition, the recent advances in the drug delivery systems for curcumin delivery to cancer cells have been highlighted.

Synthesis of Curcumin Nanoparticles from Raw Turmeric Rhizome [ However, curcumin has drawbacks such as low water-solubility, poor absorption, fast metabolism, quick systemic elimination, low bioavailability, poor pharmacokinetics, low stability, and low penetration targeting efficacy. To overcome these drawbacks, a common method used is encapsulating curcumin in nanocarriers for targeted delivery. ] Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) has been used as a spice and a medicinal herb since ancient times. The main active ingredient of turmeric is curcumin, a polyphenol that helps prevent and control neurological, respiratory, cardiovascular, metabolic, inflammatory, and autoimmune diseases and some cancers. However, curcumin has drawbacks such as low water-solubility, poor absorption, fast metabolism, quick systemic elimination, low bioavailability, poor pharmacokinetics, low stability, and low penetration targeting efficacy. To overcome these drawbacks, a common method used is encapsulating curcumin in nanocarriers for targeted delivery. However, the degraded products of nanocarriers have raised concerns. In this research, we synthesized nanoparticles of curcumin, nanocurcumin without using nanocarriers. To do so, curcumin was soxhlet extracted from raw turmeric rhizome. The stock solutions of different curcumin concentrations prepared in dichloromethane were added to boiling water at different flow rates and sonicated for different time intervals. An average particle size of 82 ± 04 nm was obtained with 5.00 mg/mL stock solution concentration, at 0.10 mL/min flow rate and 30 min sonication time. The particle size tends to increase with the flow rate and the concentration of curcumin in the stock solution but decreases with the sonication time. X-ray diffraction shows sharp and intense diffraction peaks for curcumin, indicating its identity and high crystallinity, but nanocurcumins are amorphous. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy spectra confirm the presence of all the functional groups of curcumin in nanocurcumin. Transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy images show the perfectly spherical morphology of nanocurcumin. Although curcumin is not water-soluble, nano-curcumin formulations are freely dispersible in water.

CURCUMIN, INCREASING ITS WATER SOLUBILITY BY ULTRASOUND AND PEG Water solubility of curcumin is increased by PEG in ultrasound medium. Different PEG-curcumin complexes were prepared with and without using ultrasound at 25 degrees C. Curcumin concentrations of complexes were determined by UV. The surface charges of PEG-curcumin complexes were investigated by zeta measurements. Critical aggregate concentrations were determined from both UV and zeta potential measurements. Complexes prepared by ultrasound were found to be more compact and homogenous in both size and charge distribution and they also carried more curcumin. Antioxidant capacity of the complexes, determined by DPPH and FRAP methods, were higher than the capacity of curcumin itself.

Increasing aqueous solubility of curcumin for improving bioavailability [ A solution to the problem of bioavailability would be to increase the solubility of curcumin with the use of heat. Heat-solubilized curcumin/turmeric should be considered for oral administration to patients in clinical trials since curcumin’s full pharmacological potential is limited owing to its extremely limited solubility in water. Studies from our laboratory have shown that it is possible to increase the solubility of curcumin 12-fold and that of turmeric 3-fold by heating a solution of curcumin/turmeric in water to boiling for 10 minutes. ] The interesting review by Aggarwal and Sung [1] provides a comprehensive description of the pharmacological basis for the role of curcumin in chronic diseases. Towards the end of the manuscript the authors list important limitations of curcumin, the prime limitation being curcumin’s insolubility in aqueous solutions and consequently its poor bioavailability. Therefore, any method to improve curcumin’s solubility in water would be of immense interest to investigators working to find therapeutic advances to several debilitating and terminal illnesses. Several investigators have studied the solubility and bioavailability of curcumin. Studies from our laboratory have shown that it is possible to increase the solubility of curcumin 12-fold and that of turmeric 3-fold by heating a solution of curcumin/turmeric in water to boiling for 10 minutes. Profiling of the heat-extracted curcumin with matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry and spectrophotometry (400-700 nm) displayed no heat-mediated disintegration of curcumin [6,7]. The heat-solubilized curcumin was found to inhibit 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE)-protein modification by 80%.

Impact of cooking on the antioxidant activity of spice turmeric [ In conclusion, the cooked curcuminoids, including boiled and roasted forms, still have antioxidant and neuroprotective activity. ] In conclusion, the cooked curcuminoids, including boiled and roasted forms, still have antioxidant and neuroprotective activity.TURMERIC :Turmeric, a plant in the ginger family, is native to Southeast Asia and is grown commercially in that region, primarily in India. Its rhizome (underground stem) is used as a culinary spice and traditional medicine. Curcumin is a major component of turmeric, and the activities of turmeric are commonly attributed to curcuminoids (curcumin and closely related substances). Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, improves liver function and more. Turmeric is a spice that can prevent the release of histamine from mast cells and can even inhibit anaphylactic reactions. Curcumin gives turmeric its yellow color. Recent studies have shown curcumin may be a electrode enhancer for hydrogen fuel cells and batteries.

Also known as: Curcuma longa, synonym Curcuma domestica; Curcuma aromatica. Turmeric is fat soluble—meaning it dissolves in fats. Without the fats binding it, the turmeric struggles to make it through the liver and stomach without being absorbed prematurely, and into the small intestines where it can be transferred through to the blood. Boil turmeric in water for 10 minutes or combine with fats for availability.

Keywords: curcumin, turmeric, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, polyphenol, Curcuma longa L., curcuma, spice, curcuminoids, pharmacological effects, biotechnological applications, curcumin metabolites, tetrahydrocurcumin, mechanisms of action, applications, solubility, absorption, bioavailability, hydrolysis, applications, clinical trial, curcumin, human diseases, inflammation, safety, Curcumin as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and lipophilic action improves the cognitive functions in patients with AD., puffing, high hydrostatic pressure, antioxidant, curcumin, extraction, synthesis, degradation, metal chelation, nanoformulation, ageing, anti-cancer, autophagy, microbiota, senescence, senolytics, Turmeric, Curcumin, Cholesterol, Cardiovascular risk, Triglycerides, Meta-analysis, curcumin, cancer, cell signaling pathways, Curcuma longa, Curcuma longa/pharmacognosy. Curcumin/use/topical anti-inflammatory. Cosmetics/use of natural products. Curcuminoid pigments. Skin penetration. Natural products/use in cosmetics., Tumeric, Sebum, Curcuma longa, Sebumeter, Skin, Acne, curcumin, anticancer, structure activity relationship, cellular pathway, mechanism o

Summary of Abstracts:

Curcumin: A Review of Its Effects on Human Health [ Piperine can increase bioavailability by 2000 percent. ] Turmeric, a spice that has long been recognized for its medicinal properties, has received interest from both the medical/scientific world and from culinary enthusiasts, as it is the major source of the polyphenol curcumin. It aids in the management of oxidative and inflammatory conditions, metabolic syndrome, arthritis, anxiety, and hyperlipidemia. It may also help in the management of exercise-induced inflammation and muscle soreness, thus enhancing recovery and performance in active people. In addition, a relatively low dose of the complex can provide health benefits for people that do not have diagnosed health conditions. Most of these benefits can be attributed to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Ingesting curcumin by itself does not lead to the associated health benefits due to its poor bioavailability, which appears to be primarily due to poor absorption, rapid metabolism, and rapid elimination. There are several components that can increase bioavailability. For example, piperine is the major active component of black pepper and, when combined in a complex with curcumin, has been shown to increase bioavailability by 2000%. Curcumin combined with enhancing agents provides multiple health benefits.

Turmeric and Its Major Compound Curcumin on Health: Bioactive Effects and Safety Profiles for Food, Pharmaceutical, Biotechnological and Medicinal Applications [ antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antidiabetic, hypocholesterolemic, anti-thrombotic, antihepatotoxic, anti-diarrheal, carminative, diuretic, antirheumatic, hypotensive, antimicrobial, antiviral, antioxidant, larvicidal, insecticidal, antivenomous, and antityrosinase effects ] Curcumin, a yellow polyphenolic pigment from the Curcuma longa L. (turmeric) rhizome, has been used for centuries for culinary and food coloring purposes, and as an ingredient for various medicinal preparations, widely used in Ayurveda and Chinese medicine. In recent decades, their biological activities have been extensively studied. Thus, this review aims to offer an in-depth discussion of curcumin applications for food and biotechnological industries, and on health promotion and disease prevention, with particular emphasis on its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, anticancer, hepatoprotective, and cardioprotective effects.

Highly Bioavailable Forms of Curcumin and Promising Avenues for Curcumin-Based Research and Application: A Review Curcumin exerts a wide range of beneficial physiological and pharmacological activities, including antioxidant, anti-amyloid, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-neoplastic, immune-modulating, metabolism regulating, anti-depressant, neuroprotective and tissue protective effects. However, its poor solubility and poor absorption in the free form in the gastrointestinal tract and its rapid biotransformation to inactive metabolites greatly limit its utility as a health-promoting agent and dietary supplement. Recent advances in micro- and nano-formulations of curcumin with greatly enhanced absorption resulting in desirable blood levels of the active forms of curcumin now make it possible to address a wide range of potential applications, including pain management, and as tissue protective. Using these forms of highly bioavailable curcumin now enable a broad spectrum of appropriate studies to be conducted. This review discusses the formulations designed to enhance bioavailability, metabolism of curcumin, relationships between solubility and particle size relative to bioavailability, human pharmacokinetic studies involving formulated curcumin products, the widely used but inappropriate practice of hydrolyzing plasma samples for quantification of blood curcumin, current applications of curcumin and its metabolites and promising directions for health maintenance and applications.

Therapeutic Roles of Curcumin: Lessons Learned from Clinical Trials [ Curcumin has also shown protection against hepatic conditions, chronic arsenic exposure, and alcohol intoxication. ] Extensive research over the past half century has shown that curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a component of the golden spice turmeric (Curcuma longa), can modulate multiple cell signaling pathways. Extensive clinical trials over the past quarter century have addressed the pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy of this nutraceutical against numerous diseases in humans. Some promising effects have been observed in patients with various pro-inflammatory diseases including cancer, cardiovascular disease, arthritis, uveitis, ulcerative proctitis, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel disease, tropical pancreatitis, peptic ulcer, gastric ulcer, idiopathic orbital inflammatory pseudotumor, oral lichen planus, gastric inflammation, vitiligo, psoriasis, acute coronary syndrome, atherosclerosis, diabetes, diabetic nephropathy, diabetic microangiopathy, lupus nephritis, renal conditions, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, β-thalassemia, biliary dyskinesia, Dejerine-Sottas disease, cholecystitis, and chronic bacterial prostatitis. Curcumin has also shown protection against hepatic conditions, chronic arsenic exposure, and alcohol intoxication. Dose-escalating studies have indicated the safety of curcumin at doses as high as 12 g/day over 3 months. Curcumin’s pleiotropic activities emanate from its ability to modulate numerous signaling molecules such as pro-inflammatory cytokines, apoptotic proteins, NF–κB, cyclooxygenase-2, 5-LOX, STAT3, C-reactive protein, prostaglandin E2, prostate-specific antigen, adhesion molecules, phosphorylase kinase, transforming growth factor-β, triglyceride, ET-1, creatinine, HO-1, AST, and ALT in human participants. In clinical trials, curcumin has been used either alone or in combination with other agents. Various formulations of curcumin, including nanoparticles, liposomal encapsulation, emulsions, capsules, tablets, and powder, have been examined. In this review, we discuss in detail the various human diseases in which the effect of curcumin has been investigated.

The effect of curcumin (turmeric) on Alzheimer's disease: An overview [ Alternative approach to Alzheimer's, beta amyloid plaques, curcumin, curcumin and dementia, epidemiology, turmeric ] This paper discusses the effects of curcumin on patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Curcumin (Turmeric), an ancient Indian herb used in curry powder, has been extensively studied in modern medicine and Indian systems of medicine for the treatment of various medical conditions, including cystic fibrosis, haemorrhoids, gastric ulcer, colon cancer, breast cancer, atherosclerosis, liver diseases and arthritis. It has been used in various types of treatments for dementia and traumatic brain injury. Curcumin also has a potential role in the prevention and treatment of AD. Curcumin as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and lipophilic action improves the cognitive functions in patients with AD. A growing body of evidence indicates that oxidative stress, free radicals, beta amyloid, cerebral deregulation caused by bio-metal toxicity and abnormal inflammatory reactions contribute to the key event in Alzheimer's disease pathology. Due to various effects of curcumin, such as decreased Beta-amyloid plaques, delayed degradation of neurons, metal-chelation, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and decreased microglia formation, the overall memory in patients with AD has improved. This paper reviews the various mechanisms of actions of curcumin in AD and pathology.

Enhanced Antioxidant Capacity of Puffed Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) by High Hydrostatic Pressure Extraction (HHPE) of Bioactive Compounds Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) is known for its health benefits. Several previous studies revealed that curcumin, the main active compound in turmeric, has antioxidant capacity. It has been previously demonstrated that puffing, the physical processing using high heat and pressure, of turmeric increases the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities by increasing phenolic compounds in the extract. The current study sought to determine if high hydrostatic pressure extraction (HHPE), a non-thermal extraction at over 100 MPa, aids in the chemical changes and antioxidant functioning of turmeric.

The Chemistry of Curcumin: From Extraction to Therapeutic Agent [ Aqueous curcumin solutions can be prepared by adding surfactants, lipids, albumins, cyclodextrins, biopolymers. Curcumin has been found to be an excellent scavenger of most ROS, a property that bestows curcumin with antioxidant activity in normal cells. Curcumin undergoes chemical degradation in aqueous-organic solutions and the degradation increases as the pH is increased, which is of a serious concern in its applications. Although not fully understood, it is believed that the degradation is by hydrolysis through the diketo moiety. However the degradation is significantly decreased when curcumin is attached to lipids, liposomes, albumins, cyclodextrin, cucurbituryl, surfactants, polymers and many other macromolecular and microheterogenous systems. Curcumin undergoes much faster degradation when exposed to sunlight. Curcumin forms strong complexes with most of the known metal ions. Curcumin is a monobasic bidentate ligand and forms stable complexes with almost all the metals and non-metals. Curcumin-metal complexes not only modify the physico-chemical properties of curcumin but they also affect the biological reactivity of the metals. Due to the reversible electron transfer reactions with superoxide ions, Cu2+ and Mn2+ complexes of curcumin act as superoxide dismutase enzyme mimics. Metal complexes of curcumin have greater significance in view of the pathology of Alzheimer’s disease, where it has been found that due to its lipophilic nature, curcumin can cross the blood brain barrier and chelate metal ions that are toxic to the neurons. The fluorescence quantum yield of curcumin is drastically reduced on metal chelation. The absorption spectrum of curcumin is altered on complexation with metals. The water insolubility and low bioavailability of curcumin in cells have prompted researchers to develop new formulations based on biocompatible organic substances like liposomes, polyethylene glycols, biopolymers, cellulose, corn oil, hydrogels ... curcumin is solubilised by getting entrapped in hydrophobic pockets, mainly through hydrophobic interactions. Gold nanoparticle-based curcumin formulations have been prepared and reported recently. Gold nanoparticles find application in biology and medicine, for drug delivery, diagnosis and cancer treatment. Such gold-curcumin conjugates were reported to be hemocompatible and non-toxic. ] Curcumin, a pigment from turmeric, is one of the very few promising natural products that has been extensively investigated by researchers from both the biological and chemical point of view. While there are several reviews on the biological and pharmacological effects of curcumin, chemistry reviews are comparatively scarcer. In this article, an overview of different aspects of the unique chemistry research on curcumin will be discussed. These include methods for the extraction from turmeric, laboratory synthesis methods, chemical and photochemical degradation and the chemistry behind its metabolism. Additionally other chemical reactions that have biological relevance like nucleophilic addition reactions, and metal chelation will be discussed. Recent advances in the preparation of new curcumin nanoconjugates with metal and metal oxide nanoparticles will also be mentioned. Directions for future investigations to be undertaken in the chemistry of curcumin have also been suggested.

Anti-aging Role of Curcumin by Modulating the Inflammatory Markers [ Curcumin has a anti-aging role. ] Advanced age is associated with an accumulation of free radical damage, which leads to physiological and clinical modifications. Numerous pharmaceutical and nutraceuticals are considered to influence longevity and prompting healthy ageing. Therefore, the current study attempted to investigate Curcumin's role in the inflammatory indices as anti-ageing marker in albino Wistar rats. Conclusion: Finding of the study suggests that Curcumin exhibits favorable influence in slowing down of ageing process by suppressing age-related changes in inflammatory indices.

The Role of Curcumin in the Modulation of Ageing [ curcumin. It causes the elongation of the lifespan of model organisms, alleviates ageing symptoms and postpones the progression of age-related diseases in which cellular senescence is directly involved. It has been demonstrated that the elimination of senescent cells significantly improves the quality of life ] It is believed that postponing ageing is more effective and less expensive than the treatment

of particular age-related diseases. Compounds which could delay symptoms of ageing, especially natural products present in a daily diet, are intensively studied. One of them is curcumin. It causes the elongation of the lifespan of model organisms, alleviates ageing symptoms and postpones the progression of age-related diseases in which cellular senescence is directly involved. It has been demonstrated that the elimination of senescent cells significantly improves the quality of life of mice. There is a continuous search for compounds, named senolytic drugs, that selectively eliminate senescent cells from organisms.

Efficacy and safety of turmeric and

curcumin in lowering blood lipid levels in patients with cardiovascular risk factors: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials [ Turmeric and curcumin may protect patients at risk of CVD through improving serum lipid levels. Curcumin may be used as a well-tolerated dietary adjunct to conventional drugs. Further research is required to resolve uncertainties related to dosage form, dose and medication frequency of curcumin. ] Dyslipidemia is an important and common cardiovascular risk factor in the general population. The lipid-lowering effects of turmeric and curcumin are unconfirmed. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the efficacy and safety of turmeric and curcumin in lowering blood lipids in patients at risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Turmeric and curcumin may protect patients at risk of CVD through improving serum lipid levels. Curcumin may be used as a well-tolerated dietary adjunct to conventional drugs. Further research is required to resolve uncertainties related to dosage form, dose and medication frequency of curcumin.

Curcumin and Cancer [ Curcumin has been reported to modulate growth factors, enzymes, transcription factors, kinase, inflammatory cytokines, and proapoptotic (by upregulation) and antiapoptotic (by downregulation) proteins. ] Curcumin, a polyphenol extracted from Curcuma longa in 1815, has gained attention from scientists worldwide for its biological activities (e.g., antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiviral), among which its anticancer potential has been the most described and still remains under investigation. The present review focuses on the cell signaling pathways involved in cancer development and proliferation, and which are targeted by curcumin. Curcumin has been reported to modulate growth factors, enzymes, transcription factors, kinase, inflammatory cytokines, and proapoptotic (by upregulation) and antiapoptotic (by downregulation) proteins. This polyphenol compound, alone or combined with other agents, could represent an effective drug for cancer therapy.

Use of Curcuma longa in cosmetics: extraction of curcuminoid pigments, development of formulations, and in vitro skin permeation studies Curcuma longa is a ginger family aromatic herb (Zingiberaceae) whose rhizomes contain curcuminoid pigments, including curcumin, a compound known for its anti-inflammatory effects. The objective of this study was to obtain curcuminoid-rich extracts, develop topical formulations thereof, and assess the stability and skin permeation of these formulations. Curcuma longa extracts were obtained and used to develop formulations. Skin permeation studies were conducted in a modified Franz diffusion cell system, and skin retention of curcuminoid pigments was quantified in pig ear membrane. Prepared urea-containing gel-cream formulations were unstable, whereas all others had satisfactory stability and pseudoplastic rheological behavior. The amount of curcuminoid pigments recovered from the receptor solution was negligible. The skin concentration of curcuminoid pigments retained was positive (>20 μg/g of skin, mostly in the stratum corneum), considering the low skin permeability of curcumin. We conclude that development of topical formulations containing curcumin or Curcuma longa extract is feasible, as long as adjuvants are added to improve preservation and durability. The formulations developed in this study enabled penetration of curcumin limited to the superficial layers of the skin and then possibly without a risk of systemic action, thus permitting local use as a topical anti-inflammatory.

Topical Curcumin Nanocarriers are Neuroprotective in Eye Disease [ Collectively, these results suggest that our novel topical CN formulation has potential as an effective neuroprotective therapy in glaucoma and other eye diseases with neuronal pathology. ] Curcumin (1,7-bis-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5dione) is a polyphenol extracted from turmeric that has long been advocated for the treatment of a variety of conditions including neurodegenerative and inflammatory disorders. Despite this promise, the clinical use of curcumin has been limited by the poor solubility and low bioavailability of this molecule. In this article, we describe a novel nanocarrier formulation comprising Pluronic-F127 stabilised D-α-Tocopherol polyethene glycol 1000 succinate nanoparticles, which were used to successfully solubilize high concentrations (4.3 mg/mL) of curcumin. Characterisation with x-ray diffraction and in vitro release assays localise curcumin to the nanocarrier interior, with each particle measuring <20 nm diameter. Curcumin-loaded nanocarriers (CN) were found to significantly protect against cobalt chloride induced hypoxia and glutamate induced toxicity in vitro, with CN treatment significantly increasing R28 cell viability. Using established glaucoma-related in vivo models of ocular hypertension (OHT) and partial optic nerve transection (pONT), topical application of CN twice-daily for three weeks significantly reduced retinal ganglion cell loss compared to controls. Collectively, these results suggest that our novel topical CN formulation has potential as an effective neuroprotective therapy in glaucoma and other eye diseases with neuronal pathology.

Effect of Turmeric (Curcuma longa Zingiberaceae) Extract Cream on Human Skin Sebum Secretion [ The study demonstrates that the extract obtained from the rhizomes of turmeric plant can be used in skin preparations to regulate excessive sebum secretion in persons suffering from acne and related problems. ] The study demonstrates that the extract obtained from the rhizomes of turmeric plant can be used in skin preparations to regulate excessive sebum secretion in persons suffering from acne and related problems.

A Review of Curcumin and Its Derivatives as Anticancer Agents [ Curcumin, the active ingredient of the Curcuma longa plant, has received great attention over the past two decades as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer agent. In this review, a summary of the medicinal chemistry and pharmacology of curcumin and its derivatives in regard to anticancer activity, their main mechanisms of action, and cellular targets has been provided based on the literature data from the experimental and clinical evaluation of curcumin in cancer cell lines, animal models, and human subjects. ] Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the world and one of the major public health problems. Despite the great advances in cancer therapy, the incidence and mortality rates of cancer remain high. Therefore, the quest for more efficient and less toxic cancer treatment strategies is still at the forefront of current research. Curcumin, the active ingredient of the Curcuma longa plant, has received great attention over the past two decades as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer agent. In this review, a summary of the medicinal chemistry and pharmacology of curcumin and its derivatives in regard to anticancer activity, their main mechanisms of action, and cellular targets has been provided based on the literature data from the experimental and clinical evaluation of curcumin in cancer cell lines, animal models, and human subjects. In addition, the recent advances in the drug delivery systems for curcumin delivery to cancer cells have been highlighted.

Synthesis of Curcumin Nanoparticles from Raw Turmeric Rhizome [ However, curcumin has drawbacks such as low water-solubility, poor absorption, fast metabolism, quick systemic elimination, low bioavailability, poor pharmacokinetics, low stability, and low penetration targeting efficacy. To overcome these drawbacks, a common method used is encapsulating curcumin in nanocarriers for targeted delivery. ] Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) has been used as a spice and a medicinal herb since ancient times. The main active ingredient of turmeric is curcumin, a polyphenol that helps prevent and control neurological, respiratory, cardiovascular, metabolic, inflammatory, and autoimmune diseases and some cancers. However, curcumin has drawbacks such as low water-solubility, poor absorption, fast metabolism, quick systemic elimination, low bioavailability, poor pharmacokinetics, low stability, and low penetration targeting efficacy. To overcome these drawbacks, a common method used is encapsulating curcumin in nanocarriers for targeted delivery. However, the degraded products of nanocarriers have raised concerns. In this research, we synthesized nanoparticles of curcumin, nanocurcumin without using nanocarriers. To do so, curcumin was soxhlet extracted from raw turmeric rhizome. The stock solutions of different curcumin concentrations prepared in dichloromethane were added to boiling water at different flow rates and sonicated for different time intervals. An average particle size of 82 ± 04 nm was obtained with 5.00 mg/mL stock solution concentration, at 0.10 mL/min flow rate and 30 min sonication time. The particle size tends to increase with the flow rate and the concentration of curcumin in the stock solution but decreases with the sonication time. X-ray diffraction shows sharp and intense diffraction peaks for curcumin, indicating its identity and high crystallinity, but nanocurcumins are amorphous. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy spectra confirm the presence of all the functional groups of curcumin in nanocurcumin. Transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy images show the perfectly spherical morphology of nanocurcumin. Although curcumin is not water-soluble, nano-curcumin formulations are freely dispersible in water.

CURCUMIN, INCREASING ITS WATER SOLUBILITY BY ULTRASOUND AND PEG Water solubility of curcumin is increased by PEG in ultrasound medium. Different PEG-curcumin complexes were prepared with and without using ultrasound at 25 degrees C. Curcumin concentrations of complexes were determined by UV. The surface charges of PEG-curcumin complexes were investigated by zeta measurements. Critical aggregate concentrations were determined from both UV and zeta potential measurements. Complexes prepared by ultrasound were found to be more compact and homogenous in both size and charge distribution and they also carried more curcumin. Antioxidant capacity of the complexes, determined by DPPH and FRAP methods, were higher than the capacity of curcumin itself.

Increasing aqueous solubility of curcumin for improving bioavailability [ A solution to the problem of bioavailability would be to increase the solubility of curcumin with the use of heat. Heat-solubilized curcumin/turmeric should be considered for oral administration to patients in clinical trials since curcumin’s full pharmacological potential is limited owing to its extremely limited solubility in water. Studies from our laboratory have shown that it is possible to increase the solubility of curcumin 12-fold and that of turmeric 3-fold by heating a solution of curcumin/turmeric in water to boiling for 10 minutes. ] The interesting review by Aggarwal and Sung [1] provides a comprehensive description of the pharmacological basis for the role of curcumin in chronic diseases. Towards the end of the manuscript the authors list important limitations of curcumin, the prime limitation being curcumin’s insolubility in aqueous solutions and consequently its poor bioavailability. Therefore, any method to improve curcumin’s solubility in water would be of immense interest to investigators working to find therapeutic advances to several debilitating and terminal illnesses. Several investigators have studied the solubility and bioavailability of curcumin. Studies from our laboratory have shown that it is possible to increase the solubility of curcumin 12-fold and that of turmeric 3-fold by heating a solution of curcumin/turmeric in water to boiling for 10 minutes. Profiling of the heat-extracted curcumin with matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry and spectrophotometry (400-700 nm) displayed no heat-mediated disintegration of curcumin [6,7]. The heat-solubilized curcumin was found to inhibit 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE)-protein modification by 80%.

Impact of cooking on the antioxidant activity of spice turmeric [ In conclusion, the cooked curcuminoids, including boiled and roasted forms, still have antioxidant and neuroprotective activity. ] In conclusion, the cooked curcuminoids, including boiled and roasted forms, still have antioxidant and neuroprotective activity.

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